Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH)
is a protein produced by granulosa cells of the ovaries
in females and by Sertoli cells of the testes in males.
In women serum AMH
concentration increases with age up until the
mid-twenties, after which it begins to decline. AMH
correlates well with the number of follicles in the
ovary (as measured by ultrasound) in women over the age
of 25. In men serum AMH concentration tends to be high
in childhood, then declines through puberty to low
levels in adulthood.
AMH is used in IVF to assess
ovarian reserve and predict response to treatment. In
paediatrics, the measurement of AMH may be useful as a
marker of testicular activity in determination of
phenotypic sex in patients with ambiguous genitalia. AMH
may also be of use as a tumour marker in patients with
ovarian granulosa cell carcinoma.