are screened by ELISA for IgG and IgM antibodies against
gangliosides GM1, GD1a, GT1b, GQ1b.
Positive screens are titrated to measure specific levels.
antibodies are associated with neuropathy.
GD1a and GD1b antibodies in particular
are associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome. GM1 antibodies
are often present in multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN),
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), proximal lower motor neurone
disease and rarely in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
IgG antibodies to ganglioside GQ1b are associated with
Miller-Fisher syndrome and specifically those with
opthalmoplegia. IgM antibodies to GQ1b are seen in some
chronic ataxia neuropathies which share some common clinical
features with the Miller-Fisher syndrome